Sadriddin Aini, east affairs and national consciousness

Keywords: national ideas, educator, Central Asia, scientific works, Soviet government, East, West, research.

 Article is devoted to the great Soviet Tajik writer, scientist and public figure. The author places the main emphasis on national consciousness on which S. Aini worked and which are so obviously shown practically in all his scientific and publicistic creativity. Articles devoted to a subject of the East and the Soviet government are deeply opened and also the main orientation of ideas of the scientist, mainly, expressed in promotion of friendship and association of people of the world in the general fight for freedom and happiness of mankind is defined.


Today no doubt that Sadriddin Aini ‘s national ideas began to manifest themselves at the very beginning of his creative activities, with the first insights about society and the social conditions he read from Ahmad Donish’s works, as well as from newspapers and magazines of that time. If Ahmad Donish identified the main factors of the economic decline of the Bukhara Emirates and identified the prerequisites necessary to build a new society, S. Aini, in his turn, demonstrated through the image of Mullo Amon, the cultural and practical significance of A. Donish’s activities in his work “Yoddoshtho” (“Memories”).

Sadriddin Aini

As a public figure and scientist, Saddridin Aini made considerable efforts to educate not only the Tajik people, but also the entire Soviet people. One of the initial noble initiatives of Saddridin Aini ‘s national interests was the establishment of new schools, the main purpose of which was to teach the population literacy.

It is worth noting that the educators of that period, including S. Aini, were responsible for most important mission – the determination of the place and significance of the people and nationality called “Tajiks”, which must have its own state and designation on geographical map of the world.

The outstanding Tajik scholar M. Shakuri notes that the leaders of the Bukhara People ‘s Republic of those times made every effort to ensure that the nation – “Tajik” should not exist at all. At that time, the Tajik people, semi-literate, according to the simple “not able to recognize who is the enemy and who is a friend,” was indifferent to what is happening around them and indifferent to their future. Thus, Sadriddin Aini and his followers were called to wake up the “sleeping semi-literate people,” to introduce the world to the greatest heritage and culture of the Tajik people, to inform the whole world, in particular the Soviet Government, that there should be a people in Central Asia  as “Tajiks,” as well as a country  should be existed as “Tajikistan.”

The theme of national identity can be seen in all areas of activity of S. Aini. It is noteworthy that in each of his articles devoted to various topics of daily life of the people, he tried directly or indirectly to highlight issues of national identity. In his work, whether of a scientific or literary nature, the question of the national interests of the Tajik people has always been a priority for him. However, it should be noted that the works written before and in the first years of the revolution covered the interests of all Muslims (including Tajiks).  In following years, after the provocation of the Panturkists S. Aini, directly, without communes, began to mention the nation “Tajik” and protected the interests of the Tajik people.

Sadriddin Aini ‘s struggle for strengthening the national unity of the Tajik and awakening the sense of national identity in them is identified with the struggle of the warrior on the battlefield, thus “every scientific of fiction work started from” Samples of Tajik Literature” to “Mirzo Abdulkodir Bedil” was a field of his invisible battle. Panturkists and nihilists were fighting with the scientific works of Aini tirelessly had to deal with one warrior on the field who holds resistance before a powerful and destructive force. ” (4.109)

In some works, S. Aini raised issues of Tajik language, literature, new alphabet, issues of definition of such a nation as “Tajik” and its history. In other works, he tried to draw a parallel of Soviet power with other states on various aspects. This can be seen more clearly in the first period of journalistic activity, for example, in such articles as “The Problem of the East”, “The Situation of Iran, “The Soviet Government of Turkistan and the Problem of the East”, “Rise!, the East Oppressed, the Eastern Army Came”, “The International Revolution, the countries of Turkey, India and Afghanistan,” and others.

For example, articles about East deeply analyze the main factors of Asian countries “expansion by Western colonizers and reveal their “behind-the-scenes games”. This is particularly evident in article “The Problem of the East,” where in the first part there is a historical excursion across Eastern and Western countries, the reader gets acquainted with the “lifetimes of the two parts of the world,” and further issues of purpose and ways of capturing eastern countries by western capitalists are considered.

“As Western educators reached heights in science, art and craft, developed mines, penetrated the subsoil of mountains and took advantage of all natural forces… Also Western capitalists, although convinced that “we will improve the East, spread science and culture in the East, educate the people of the East and the like this…,” but their purpose is to rob the Eastern heritage and enslavement of the people of the East, their exploitation for the benefit of themselves….” (4.109)

The article notes that Western capitalists look cohesive and united when plundering the heritage of the East, in fact, there are sharp differences and struggles between them, as everyone seeks great benefits. This is similar to market traders, speculators who seem to unite and ally, but “the purpose of them is to deceive each other and vile how to get more buyers and more benefits than others.” This analogy – ” traders – speculator,” helped skillfully and publicly show the true faces of western capitalists and reveal the main features of imperialists.

In this article you can see another figurative comparison, in which S. Aini saw the East as an infirm sick, and capitalists as unconscious and rich heirs. This comparison fully reveals the hypocrisy and duplicity of western colonizers.

“The people of the East,” he writes, “was similar to the sick at death, around whom greedy heirs gathered, waiting for his breath and receiving a large share in the inheritance…. Like the unconscious heirs at the deathbed of the patient hypocritically speak comforting words, and in Reality asks God for his early death, and also Western capitalists sit at the bed of the East, hypocritically comforting, for example, with such words: “Your independence is not threatened, your political and national rights are protected by international laws, we will not attack your country, but only want to develop your country economically, commercially, culturally, settle your expenses and profits, we want to open the doors of science and education to your population…,” and in fact they want the last breath of this poor person and get his property. ” (4.110)

Thus, S. Aini breaks the false mask from the face of self-loving ruin capitalists and shows their true appearance to readers very clearly that in the modern period it has not lost its relevance.

In a series of articles on the international situation, Mr. Aini paid close attention to the political and social situation of the countries of the East and the history of the liberation struggle in the eastern countries, as well as to the impact of the October Revolution on the Eastern world and the development of the revolutionary movement.

In regard to the Soviet Government, the publicist notes that on the question of the East, unlike the imperialist States, it really wants the liberation of the East, will help and support the population of the East, who have rebelled for their own liberation. In this regard, “the savior of the East needs to take advantage of this moment, to contact the Soviet government. To receive the necessary instructions and everywhere to create organizations and societies, to explain to the people of the East the true purpose of Western capitalists in order to destroy the enemy until he destroyed it. ” (4.110)

In such articles the author on the basis of newspaper news and information of telegraph agencies shows the development of the anti-imperialist movement. The population of the East, as well as information about the national liberation struggle of the people of Turkey, Afghanistan, Iran, India, China, as well as Arab and other Asian countries. Particular note about those Eastern countries that have stood in the struggle for their independence and have been granted the right to exist as a free nation. For example, Aini writes about the people of Afghanistan, who in a ruthless struggle dropped the yoke of English colonizers and gained freedom and independence:

“When the Iranian state, which has a six thousand history, danced under the dud of England, the Hivin Khanate and the Bukhar Emir dreamed of the death of Nikolay and wanted instead him the intercession of the English state, lick their lips in vain when looking like a moon in dreams of a simple, or before the rain had ended, wanted to remove the drains…. Afghanistan, under the rule of Amir Amonullohon, declared independence with a daring, revolutionary impulse, achieved its goal with one blow of the sword and extended the hand of friendship to the Russian state, a real ally of the East. ” (4.110)

According to researchers and in the analysis of articles, S. Aini ‘s political publicist on Eastern issues covers the following topics:

  • The revolutionary awakening of the East;
  • Awakening the East and following the course of Soviet Russia;
  • Problem of struggle between East and West, imperialist swathes of the West;
  • Use by colonizers of violence and deception against the East.

Aini ‘s articles on the question of the East are mostly written in the genre of newspaper articles and review, based on sources of Turkish and Persian periodicals published outside Central Asia.

Another theme found in S. Aini ‘s articles on the East is the strengthening of friendship and union among people.

Aini attaches particular importance to the relationship between the people of the East and the West in struggle against imperialism. He calls people of the East and the West to assist each other in struggle for their rights and freedom, to rise up against oppression and slavery. For example, in article “Workers of East and West, Unite!” he notes:

“When such powerful states struggle and are in confrontation with the world of the East, if the workers of these countries come out with one powerful impulse on the battlefield, it will not take long to destroy the old world… The result of the said: for the advance of revolution and freedom of the whole world, workers of the East and the West, unite! ” (4.111)

According to the above conclusion, it can be concluded that in S. Aini ‘s articles on the problems of the East, the propaganda of friendship and the unification of the peoples of the world in the common struggle for freedom and happiness of mankind is one of the most important topics, the question of national identity, national unity is one of the ideological foundations of his journalistic activity.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the to theme “Aini and national identity” became the subject of research of scholars only during the period of restructuring (1985). Studies and articles by M. Shukurov, S. Tabarov, A. Mahmadaminov, H. Asozoda, M. Abdulloh, I. Usmonov, M. Imomov have studied only some aspects of this topic, but the aspect of national values of independent Tajik society needs for a new, wide-ranging study.


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Information about the author: Safarzoda Ehson, aspirant of the Tajik National University (Tajikistan Republic, Dushanbe) E-mail:

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